Researchers continue to investigate the causes of anal cancer. Known risk factors that have been identified include chronic infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus HPV , gender and age. HPV, a collection of more than viruses spread primarily by contact during vaginal, oral or anal sexual activity, is responsible for the majority of anal cancers. HPV may be asymptomatic for years, and persistent HPV infections may cause cell changes that, left untreated, may become cancer. The HPV vaccine provides protection against numerous strains of the virus, including subtypes 16 and 18, which are responsible for most HPV-related cancers. Anal intercourse: Men and women with a history of receptive anal intercourse, especially those younger than 30, have a higher risk of anal cancer.
Anal cancer is the term for abnormal cell growth in the anal area or the anal canal. The anal canal connects the anus the opening to the rectum. This passage is about inches long. It is the part of the body that excretes solid waste bowel movements, feces. The disease also is called carcinoma of the anal canal. The anus is the end of the digestive system. The anus is made up of tissue from the skin and from the intestine.
The rectum is the last several inches of the large intestine. Rectal cancer starts in the lining of the rectum rectal mucosa. Rectal cancer is cancer that begins in the rectum. It starts at the end of the final segment of your colon and ends when it reaches the short, narrow passage leading to the anus. Cancer inside the rectum rectal cancer and cancer inside the colon colon cancer are often referred to together as "colorectal cancer.
Muscles anal sphincters that surround the anal canal relax to allow waste to leave your body. Anal cancer is an uncommon type of cancer that occurs in the anal canal. The anal canal is a short tube at the end of your rectum through which stool leaves your body. Most people with anal cancer are treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation.